Sources of information
This Report Card is based upon expert analysis and the latest peer-reviewed literature. Here we link some more information on marine biodiversity legislation and climate change, including source material used for this Report Card.
The inclusion of climate change in legislation relevant to marine biodiversity
Frost. M, G. Bayliss-Brown, P. Buckley, M. Cox, S. Dye, W. Sanderson, B. Stoker and N. Withers-Harvey
A review of climate change and the implementation of marine biodiversity legislation in the United Kingdom.
Aquatic conservation: Marine and freshwater ecosystems. doi:10.1002/aqc.2628
UK marine protected areas
Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 - www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2009/23
Marine Act (Northern Ireland) 2013 - www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2013/10
Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 - www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/5
Habitats Directive 1992 & Birds Directive 2009 - Special areas of conservation designated under the EU Habitats Directive and Special Protection Areas classified under the EC Wild Birds Directive are part of the Natura 2000 network. The impacts of climate change are considered in the 2013 EU publication “Guidelines on Climate Change and Natura 2000” (European Commission, 2013). This guidance document aims to underline the fact that an effectively managed, functionally coherent and well-connected Natura 2000 Network can play a vital role in helping society adapt to, and mitigate, the impacts of climate change. It also considers how to ensure that Natura 2000 sites, and the species and habitats they aim to protect, are managed in a way that is adapted to the potential effects of climate change.
European Commission 1992. Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Official Journal of the European Union, L206, 7-50. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm
European Commission, 2009. Council Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds (codified version), Official Journal of the European Union, L20, 7-25 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/birdsdirective/index_en.htm
European Commission 2013. Guidelines on Climate Change and Natura 2000: Dealing with the impact of climate change – On the management of the Natura 2000 Network of areas of high biodiversity value [pdf] Available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/climatechange/pdf/Guidance%20document.pdf
Wildlife and Countryside (Service of Notices) Act 1985 - www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1985/59
Ramsar convention on wetlands 1971 - In 2002 Resolution VIII.3 (Ramsar, 2002), updated and superseded by Resolution X.24 (Ramsar, 2008), recognised that wetlands are among the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate change.
Ramsar 1971. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat. adopted by the International Conference on the Wetlands and Waterfowl at Ramsar, Iran, 2 February 1971 http://www.ramsar.org/
Ramsar 2002. Climate change and wetlands: impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. Ramsar COP 8, Resolution VIII.3 http://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/pdf/res/key_res_viii_03_e.pdf
Ramsar 2008. Climate change and wetlands. Ramsar COP 10, Resolution X.24 http://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/pdf/res/key_res_x_24_e.pdf
What could happen to the features?
Brodie, Juliet, Christopher J. Williamson, Dan A. Smale, Nicholas A. Kamenos, Nova Mieszkowska, Rui Santos, Michael Cunliffe, Michael Steinke,Christopher Yesson, Kathryn M. Anderson, Valentina Asnaghi, Colin Brownlee, Heidi L. Burdett, Michael T. Burrows, Sinead Collins, Penelope J. C. Donohue, Ben Harvey, Andrew Foggo, Fanny Noisette, Joana Nunes, Federica Ragazzola, John A. Raven, Daniela N. Schmidt, David Suggett, Mirta Teichberg and Jason M. Hall-Spence (2014)
The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world.
Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.1105
What could happen to the features?
Gormley, Kate S. G.; Joanne S. Porter, Michael C. Bell, Angela D. Hull, and William G. Sanderson (2013)
Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR Priority Habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: Consequences for Marine Protected Area networks and management.
PLoS ONE. 8(7): e68263. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068263
Marine protected areas and ocean acidification
Jackson, E.L., A. J. Davies, K. L. Howell, P. J. Kershaw and J. M. Hall-Spencer (2014)
Future-proofing marine protected area networks for cold water coral reefs.
ICES Journal of Marine Science. 71(9), 2621–2629. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsu099
How can marine protected areas and networks help address climate change?
Marine protected areas: Building resilience to climate change impacts (2013).
Marine Protected Areas Center.NOAA. 4pp
Management implications for marine protected areas in a changing climate
See the European Marine Observation Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats project (http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE).
What about the Marine Strategy Framework Directive?
ICES. 2015. Report of the Working Group on Biodiversity Science (WGBIODIV)
9–13 February 2015, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark.
ICES CM 2015/SSGEPD:04. 308pp
Special Topic Report Card 2015: Key issues for decision makers to consider
Text and image based on original research on the “Velocity of Climate Change - VoCC” by Michael Burrows and Jorge García Molinos.